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Each day companies are becoming more and more dependent upon blockchain technology applications. Now it is in the news that a company is going to build its own system to get rid of separate portions of the sharing economy scattered here and there. This will obviously be a blockchain based system activated with the help of a single app that will provide the users access to any sort of rent, borrow or share assets available within the network.

blockchain based system

That company is known by the name of ShareRing. It claims that the current market is no more convenient for consumers as it was in the past. The reason behind this inconvenience is that though there are numerous companies available in the online market but most of them are specialized in one particular service for instance office space or transportation etc. due to that reason the user has to go through the laborious task of registering multiple accounts. Even after that there is no guarantee of satisfaction as the things you want to buy or borrow would be available near your locality as these kind of business parties only operate in heavily localized areas. That is where ShareRing has decided to utilize its blockchain based systems to facilitate its users as well as the small business parties.

The Goal behind This Sharing Innovation

ShareRing has an aim of becoming the “Amazon of the sharing economy”. It will provide an ease of access to its users to lease a large number of assets through a single smartphone app. All these users would be interconnected with each other as well as nearby individuals who have items to share. The beauty of this system is that the rental companies would also be able to develop their own “mini” app. This app will provide them the facility to reach a much greater numbers of targeted customers within the share ring. For this purpose ShareRing is already considering deals with big brands, progress of these deals will probably be shared on its website.

Some of the areas in which the ShareRing technology may prove to be useful are:

  • Renting cars, trucks and trailers
  • Co-housing
  • Car sharing
  • Booking delivery drivers
  • Sharing gardens
  • Swapping books
  • Social dining etc

How will the App Work?

The ShareRing’s system will have full support of an integrated smart app which will use geolocation to show users which services are available near them, thus it will also be participating in growing the ecosystem. The company is quiet optimistic about its progress and hopes that soon there would be available one million assets ready to share around the world.

 

ShareRing’s token sharing event going to be launched in May, in the meantime the company is planning to run token hunts and several other campaigns to raise awareness of the project.

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Cryptocurrency Market Cap Has Once Again Dropped Below $300 Billion

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98 of the top 100 cryptocurrencies have badly dropped within the 24 hours and once again we’re seeing a day in the red for the cryptocurrency markets. The price of Bitcoin headlined the retreat by seeing an 80-day low decline, and other top coins have also fared quite poorly. The cryptocurrency market cap has declined by more than $60 billion and is currently valued at $292 billion, which represents a single-day reduction in the price of all cryptocurrencies.

Bitcoin Price Falls Below $7000:

The decline has reduced the price of Bitcoin by almost 23% and has brought the most leading cryptocurrency to an 80-day low. The price of Bitcoin is currently trading at $6,307, with the market cap of $106 billion only.

Fintech platforms like Square’s Cash App and Robinhood Crypto will probably play an important role in the coming time. Robinhood’s cryptocurrency trading platform could literally see a speed in its recovery real soon. Plus, other financial institutions are also trying to ban their customers from using their credit cards to buy these cryptocurrencies.

Cryptocurrency Market Cap

Ethereum Price Drops Below $700:

Well, many investors believed that the downturn in the cryptocurrency market would provide an opportunity to Ethereum for finally becoming the largest cryptocurrency and surpassing the Bitcoin’s price. But it didn’t go so well in that case because the price of Ethereum also got largely tracked with the Bitcoin’s decline.

The price of Ethereum dropped below the $700 mark today and is currently trading at $618 with the market cap of $43 billion, which clearly shows a single-day decline of 27%.

 Drop in The Altcoin Markets:

Overall altcoins declined worse than the Bitcoin, which represents that diversifying into the altcoins won’t essentially provide the investors with a hedge against the declines in the major cryptocurrencies market. Both, the price of Bitcoin Cash and the price of Ripple has declined by more than 20%, which reduces the 3rd and 4th largest cryptocurrencies to the current values of $0.62 and $820, respectively.

Number 5th cryptocurrency in the ranking, Cardano, showed the worst performance as compared to any top 10 cryptocurrencies, as it has dropped by 23% and is currently valued at $0.28. Meanwhile, Litecoin and EOS have returned single-day declines of 24% and 27% respectively.

Stellar, which is ranked on number 8th has seen a decline of 25% today, which demonstrates the austerity of this downturn. NEO and NEM have finished out the top 10 with the declines of 34% and 24%, reducing their prices to $71 and $0.40.

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The blockchain immutability myth

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The blockchain immutability myth

Immutability…. We use this word in daily routine to signify a thing, which can never change. Whereas, in the blockchain, this word is referring to the worldwide transactions. Which is adjust by the participants. Here, the basic approach is, once the block blockchain transactions are complete, it cannot replace or reverse by other transactions.

So, the theory goes. Because

Saint Augustine states, “The highest good, than which there is no higher, is the blockchain. And consequently it is immutably good, hence truly eternal and truly immortal.”

Two prominent examples are,

  1. Under certain conditions, through some necessary adjustment transactions, history can change itself. Here, the question is arises, it easy to bring new changes in the content of the blockchain? Is it really easy?
  2. According to cryptocurrency advocates, immutability achieves only in case of decentralization of economic mechanism. Which is not proper fall at the private sector of the blockchain. Because, they totally depend on the collective behavior of a known group of validators, who are not trustworthy.

Above two circumstances are totally wrong. Because in blockchain there is no immutability thing exist. The proper question is,

Under which circumstance the blockchain will or will not change? And,

Do those conditions match with the problem, we are trying to solve?

Instead, the chain’s behavior depends on the network of a computer system. Before we get into the detail of how we ‘ll summarize the basics of blockchain first.

Brief discussion on Blockchain  

A blockchain system is running onto the different set of nodes. Which may be in control of different companies. There is no individual node who control the others. While nodes are connecting with each other through a proper network. These nodes generate and propagate transactions and rapidly spread to other nodes via digital operations in some kind of database.

Every new upcoming transaction is verified by an independent node. Following are some terms of verification;

1.it is totally in obedience of blockchain rule and regulations.

2. it is completely a digital structure

3. If any transaction passes the test of nodes. It will enter to the local list of not confirm transactions means directly in the memory pool. While others will enter in the orphan pool. In addition, pass transactions will be forward to its peers.

With some intervals, a node which contains the set of as-yet unconfirmed transactions on the network generates a new block. Each block contains the hash (32-byt). Therefore, by creating a little block chain, each block includes the timestamp. Accordingly, link to the previous block via its hash.

Validation Process

Blocks move and verified by nodes across the network like transactions. For the acceptance by the nodes, a block must contain proper transactions including no conflict with other ones. Whereas, with the confirmation of the test, it is entering into the local blockchain and transactions are confirm. Any transaction which conflict with others will discard immediately. Whether they are in memory pool or orphan pool.

Participation of the chain, make the strategy to ensure the generation of blocks.   This ensures indicates that any kind of node. whether it is an individual or a group has no ability to take hold of the blockchain’s content.

Authentication and testing

Proof-of-work a public blockchain allow its users to generate block who has the ability to solve the tricky and fiendishly mathematical puzzle. Whereas, to prevent minority control in private blockchains, blocks are signed by authorized members. In order to create a lawful chain, a product needs to legalize validator by using mining diversity.

Two different validator nodes can generate conflicting blocks when both have the same previous points. However, fork happens. While different blocks are seen by nodes and leading them to have the different opinion about the chain’s history. These forks are resolved on the arrival of new blocks on branches by a blockchain software.

Shorter branch’s node spool back its last block and replay these two blocks on the longer one. Unfortunately, if you are unlucky and both branches will extend. Then the conflict will be resolved by the third and so on. In addition, with the increase in fork’s length, the probability of a fork persisting drops increases. After a small number of the blocks, it can be reduced to zero in private blockchain.

Here, the most important thing to remember is, each node is controlled by a particular person. Where blockchain has not authority to ask some changes in transactions. The main purpose of the chain is to help in sync. But, if participants want to change the rule, no one has authority to stop them.

That is why we need to stop asking about the immutability of blockchain. Because the answer is “no”. Arguably, we consider the conditions under which it needs changes.

 

 

The blockchain immutability myth

Public chain’s mutability

Let’s start with the above mention two examples. We will take the start with the claim that authorization process. Which used in blockchain cannot bring true immutability by public chains. e.g.

Ethereum blockchain faces a devastating situation in June 2016. “the DAO”, loophole found by someone. In which, $250 million were invested and start draining its speed. Which distract the both investor and creator’s intentions. After few days, the ethereum software updated to prevent from hackers. It was publicly supported by Vitalik Buterin that ethereum users will control their own computer system. As a result, a large number of users, blockchain comes with the new name and rules is ethereum. Whereas, minority reject this idea and keep going with ethereum classic. There were more choices for names like ethereum compromise or ethereum pure. Whatever, democracy is the democracy, and everyone has their own rights voice. In addition, ethereum is ten times more than ethereum classic.

Now, we will take a common way, in which blockchain’s immutability will be dilute. Recall that mining of bitcoin and ethereum uses proof of work scheme. Where you get a reward for solving a tricky puzzle. In addition, this reward increases the potential of the users and they solve the relating issues more efficiently. Network continually adjust the rate of block creation. In addition, 10 minutes in bitcoin or 15 seconds in

Immutability of blockchain

Bitcoin has faced the factor difficulty of 350,000x from last 5 years. Today, bitcoin mining is on hardware devices with cheap electricity and in cold weather. Antminer S9 mines the block 10,000 faster than a desktop system. Which burns 10 times more electricity than a system with cost $1089.

To undermine the immutability of bitcoin blockchain, you need to install more mining capacity, then the other network creating 51% attack first. Secondly, through proper testing and approval, mine your own secret branches. Finally, at desired time, release your secret branch to the network anonymously. Then, the whole process of a transaction will be without any scams or hacking issue. It is not easy to install a huge program. It needs a lot of money and electricity as well. And a common man or country who has the shortage of both. Unfortunately, are not able to adopt this way for immutability of bitcoin blockchain.

Let’s estimate the cost of a 51% attack which reverses a year of bitcoin transactions. At the current bitcoin price of $1500 and reward of 15 bitcoins (including transaction fees) per 10-minute block. Miners earn around $1.2 billion per year ($1500 × 15 × 6 × 24 × 365). Reasonably, they are not losing money. So, the total expense should be in the same range.

Rewriteable private chains

Now, let’s have a ride to private blockchains. Which was established for the needs of government and well-reputed organizations. According to the organization’s perspective, immutability is the commercial, legal and regulatory non-starter. Because it allows attacking the network anonymously. whereas, immutability can also be ashore in good behavior of other institutions. With whom, they have authority to sue or sign a contract. It is a bonus because private blockchains are less costly to run. Since blocks need just a node’s approval and digital signature. When a number of validators follow the rules. As a result, you get cheaper and stronger immutability than other digital currencies offer. Furthermore, the percentage of immutability may decrease when participants in chain decide to do so together.

Immutability is nuanced

People who don’t like the traditional banking system and government’s currency are perfect to use proof of work blockchain. Whose immutability rely on economic terms instead of participants. It may be an expensive operation. when parties agree to live with government or wealthy actors and bringing down the network. Accordingly, they believe that cryptocurrency technology and its value continue to grow and it will get more secure.

Finally, for most permission blockchain use cases. We probably don’t want validator nodes to be able to easily and cheaply substitute old blocks in the chain. As Dave Birch says “the way to correct a wrong debit is with a correct credit”. Rather than pretending that the debit never took place. Nonetheless, for those cases where we do need the extra flexibility, chameleon hashes help make blockchains a practical choice.

Good luck!

 

 

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Bogus Company Registers to Exploit Telegram’s mega ICO

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On 28th February, Telegram Open Network Limited was registered in Britain under the name Pavel Durov (the founder of Telegram). Telegram is a chat app, which has almost 200 million monthly users and is a commonly used platform for both ICO teams and investors, so that they can interact with each other.

telegram ico news

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to the latest telegram ICO news, the new crypto-project of the company has raised a huge amount of $1.7 billion in funding for its token sale, up to now, and will be providing services such as:

  • File storage
  • Private VPN
  • Encrypted browsing platforms
  • Services for decentralized apps
  • Decentralized browsing
  • Micropayments
  • P2P payment capabilities

Crypto Scam Alert

The company, Telegram Open Network appears to have been formed in an exertion to divert funds away from the legitimate project and it would have accomplished, if the scam didn’t expose. Their legal registration as a company could’ve legalized the project in the front of genuine investors, however, the project recently grabbed the attention of Telegram. A tweet was posted on 6th April, which revealed that it was entirely unrelated to the official project. According to this tweet by Telegram Open Network Limited, the company wasn’t linked to Durov and cited numerous red flags that raised incredulity in register document.

$1.13 Billion In Paid-Up Capital

Telegram Open Network has claimed to have $1.13 billion in paid-up capital in their registeration, and this is something which elevated uncertainties. Seemingly, the process of registration for British companies isn’t as severe as it might be anticipated however, applicants are expected to confirm their own details without actual oversight, and the procedure can be finished online for under $20 at Companies House.

Low Barriers to Entry

Even with difficulties for startups, the company’s registration can allow scammers to play away from the victims, especially from those who are searching for the legitimate registration without examining the details. Last week, the Telegram’s ICO made almost $850 million. Various investors have already earned a lot by flicking their tokens before the sale went public. With demand for a place in this enormous ICO success, it is not hard to envision how the bogus company could’ve deceived genuine investors who were eager to contribute to the action.

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What Should Be Considered in an ICO Whitepaper?

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As the popularity of ICOs (Initial Coin Offerings) is mounting along market’s instability and other cryptocurrencies fraud around the world, a debate has emerged about the appropriate regulatory policies for cryptocurrencies and ICOs. The most frequently asked questions include the proper division of authority amid the SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) and CFTC (Commodity Futures Trading Commission), whether authority of these commissions should reach the core of the cryptocurrency ecosystem, as others are expecting that a whole new regulatory rule is required for cryptocurrency and token fundraisers. This blog illustrates the congressional testimony on cryptocurrencies, which aims to reflect the existing regulatory approach that is being used by the regulators to observe and manage ICOs and cryptocurrencies, and how more regulatory clarity can be achieved in such markets.

ICO whitepaper

US Securities laws disclosure system is the prime one, where promoters can easily share information related to their company and management, openly. With SEC, this information is filed later. By dissimilarity, most of the ICO disclosures are enabled via “whitepapers” which are unregulated at this time, focusing mainly on the current technology and on such technologies that are under-development.

Investors and buyers of ICO tokens that are looking for a good return or technology users that are looking forward to contribute and support in an advanced product would have to expect certain disclosures for making a purchase in a conversant way. Some of the disclosures that have been identified by the entrepreneurs themselves are specifically relevant to ICOs transition.

Location of Promotors

According to a study, in 32% of ICOs, it is literally impossible to identify the promoter’s origin. From an investor’s point of view, this is a serious information asymmetry. It won’t be possible to identify what legal protections and rules are. without this information. Moreover, there are few ways through which investor can interact with related public authorities especially in case of fraud, like; loss or theft. So, ICO whitepaper should set out a comprehensive report of where the issuer and its key management are placed.

Issues

If we talk about the history of US Securities law, there was no such information important for investors than the financial statements of the issuer. Investors could easily evaluate the past performance of the company by scrutinizing income statements, cash flow and balance sheets, and by doing so, they could make well-versed guesses about the future performance of the company as well as its profitability.  A whole ecosystem of third-party auditors, credit rating agencies, and accountants, were settled due to the criticality of financial statements in securities offerings, to make sure the accuracy of financial statements.

ICOs serves for a different purpose as compared to most of the traditional IPOs (Initial Public Offerings). Rather than funding trading companies, ICOs involve products industrialized by startups identifying technology-based issues and offering the sale of solutions based on technology.

It’s not the past performance of the company or financial statements for most of the offerings, but it’s the venture’s technology plan. Therefore, guaranteeing that investors/retail buyers comprehend the crucial contours of the fundamental technology solution is ultimate as ICOs turn out to be a more and more popular way of fundraising.

Moreover, further technical chunks of the ICO whitepaper would be a perfect subject to a system of third-party authentication, especially for larger fundraises. Also, when describing the solution, hyperbole should be avoided by the promoters which are an endemic problem in whitepapers. Plus, investors should be required to identify an objective base for all the upcoming statements as well.

Blockchain

Investors should be well-versed about how the secondary infrastructure works, and how it is going to affect the governance of the token. Also, the consensus method for a virtual currency’s Blockchain should also be revealed as well, along with a summary of how the governance decisions, plus other decisions affect the network, such as; software upgrades, which will be synchronized amid the several investors such as designers, miners, and users.

Token’s Description

This is obvious that tokens can have a number of different economic and qualitative features, like; currency, utility, or securities. The disclosures would have to elucidate what it means to a typical holder, if the tokens are created in a technological format, complying with firm guidelines, like; ERC20 standard.

Likewise, if some efforts will be made for listing a token, for example, to list a securities token on an ATS (alternative trading system), or if there are trading limitations on the security, then such facts have to be disclosed in a way that is clear to the owner of the token. The description of token should specify the envisioned use of the coins that are issued in the offering, their quantity, plus whether the advisors will keep the reserve coins, and if they do, then how they’d liquidate them. Promoters should be required to reveal their intellectual ownership of the company’s protocol.

Technical Team Qualification

Common disclosure requirement in registered offerings is the information about the business experience of executive officers as the investors are given a sense of the quality of management and are probably the success of the company once it goes public. In ICOs, companies have restricted histories and the problem may be exceptional, if same information about the offering’s technical team could be evaluated. At the same time, coders have diverging backgrounds, as some are more qualified and experienced than others. Also, to provide investors with an intellect as to the proficiency and reliability of the white paper, many founders should provide all info linked to key engineering experience, skills, qualifications and other relevant features. Plus, it should also be mandatory for developers to provide links to their previous work.

Risks

ICOs should involve disclosures regarding the most substantial risk aspects affecting token holders in the offering document. Even though many investors will probably understand that even successful ventures can be later disintermediated by more effectual nonentities. A token holder may get astonished to discover that the product doesn’t function as it’s intended or might develop a purpose all-in-all contingent on the progress of the technology, possibly even less in all likelihood, the requirements of the contributors in the ecosystem. Shareholders should comprehend as well that the greater sectoral risks, including variations in the trade that could demote some designs of blockchain into further parts of the sector, making many tokens worthless. Buyers had to be completely aware of their latent susceptibility to hacking, disruption, and data-loss, also authorized subjects like privacy concerns and information transportability across borders.

No doubt, there are other imperative disclosures as well that should be operationalized in means that are way too much effective.

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Bitcoin at New York pre-school

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30 June 2017, After the meeting and inquiries from the parents, the head of two Montessori schools are going to accept the bitcoin.

Marco Ciocca, co-founder of the Flatiron & Soho added this option in the month of June. He held the meeting and inquiry session with parents. Accordingly, this decision comes from a different number of places. Not only school accepting the bitcoins as a payment infect universities including London and Greece are also accepting bitcoin in payment.

About 10 Parents are ready to do payments in the Bitcoin and Mr. Ciocca

He says, “If we talk about just the sort of transactional ease… I think this form of payment will continue to grow”.

Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, which was used in 2010 first time in the real world. People accept it, spend it, use in exchange and do transactions around the world. Which means, it has some worth, some value.

Today’s value of the bitcoin is $2514.98. whereas its value is double since the start of this year.

Parents are lucky who invest early because they enjoy the rise in the price and discount on school’s hefty that is $31,000.

But Mr. Ciocca opposed the profit from coin value’s fluctuation in the financial market. The will receive tuition fees in bitcoin or other digital currencies.

By accepting these digital payments, Mr. Ciocca drags the parent’s attention toward the technologies’ new trends. This is the easiest way of each kind of payments. He says, “It’s just a much more seamless transaction”.

He was the investor of this-this currency first and want to be the part of its growth. That’s why he followed the currencies and introduce them in his own schooling system.

Story credit: bbc.com

 

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