View: 461
Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

According to the latest information on the website of AUSTRAC (Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre), digital currency exchanges must have to be registered with authorities now and should also commit to several identity checking and reporting procedures. It’s been confirmed by the Australian government as well that the Australian cryptocurrency exchanges are abided by the new AML (Anti-Money Laundering) rules.

The Australian authorities are trying their best to close the remaining loopholes in cryptocurrency usage, concerning identity management and taxation of cryptocurrency. In contrast to a backdrop of discontent due to such sharp upsurge in scams, last week, the Australian Taxation Office was asked for taxpayer’s contribution into how deductions rising from the cryptocurrency returns should be assembled efficiently.

cryptocurrency exchange

Four-Principle Rules

Meanwhile, exchanges now must follow the four prime rules so that they can function above board, as a part of the security reformation. Following are the four rules:

  • Identification and verification of identities of their clients.
  • Keeping particular records for 7-years.
  • Accepting and maintaining a CTF/ AML program for the identification, alleviation, and management of terrorism financing perils and money laundering.
  • 6 months refinement period that will escort the new regulations, in which AUSTRAC will be a lot more compassionate on operators who “fall short of requirements.”
  • Reporting to AUSTRAC sceptical issues, and transactions linked to the physical currency of $10,000 and even more.

The laws relating to cryptocurrency exchanges regulations in Australia are also getting stricter, while the government has guaranteed that the investors wouldn’t feel left out. The Australian government took feedback from the public to know what their views are on the cryptocurrency taxation structure and are they going to like it or not.

The ATO (Australian Tax Office) had also posted:

“We’ve timed this consultation to coincide with an update to our website, which should address some of the feedback we have received to date about our cryptocurrency guidance. We’re eager to hear your feedback about cryptocurrency and its tax implications as the technology may impact how business operates in the future.”

Feedback from Taxpayers

Many governments across the world are getting stricter, especially when it comes to the taxation of cryptocurrencies. Many exchanges are being forced by the governments to disclose the data of consumers and to send out subpoenas to investors who have high net-worth. While many governments are getting stricter, the decision of Australian government to get the feedback from taxpayers before applying these tax laws is notable.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.

Leave a Reply

Type Comments Here

Your email address will not be published.

Share Your Toughts

View: 725

The blockchain immutability myth

Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

The blockchain immutability myth

Immutability…. We use this word in daily routine to signify a thing, which can never change. Whereas, in the blockchain, this word is referring to the worldwide transactions. Which is adjust by the participants. Here, the basic approach is, once the block blockchain transactions are complete, it cannot replace or reverse by other transactions.

So, the theory goes. Because

Saint Augustine states, “The highest good, than which there is no higher, is the blockchain. And consequently it is immutably good, hence truly eternal and truly immortal.”

Two prominent examples are,

  1. Under certain conditions, through some necessary adjustment transactions, history can change itself. Here, the question is arises, it easy to bring new changes in the content of the blockchain? Is it really easy?
  2. According to cryptocurrency advocates, immutability achieves only in case of decentralization of economic mechanism. Which is not proper fall at the private sector of the blockchain. Because, they totally depend on the collective behavior of a known group of validators, who are not trustworthy.

Above two circumstances are totally wrong. Because in blockchain there is no immutability thing exist. The proper question is,

Under which circumstance the blockchain will or will not change? And,

Do those conditions match with the problem, we are trying to solve?

Instead, the chain’s behavior depends on the network of a computer system. Before we get into the detail of how we ‘ll summarize the basics of blockchain first.

Brief discussion on Blockchain  

A blockchain system is running onto the different set of nodes. Which may be in control of different companies. There is no individual node who control the others. While nodes are connecting with each other through a proper network. These nodes generate and propagate transactions and rapidly spread to other nodes via digital operations in some kind of database.

Every new upcoming transaction is verified by an independent node. Following are some terms of verification;

1.it is totally in obedience of blockchain rule and regulations.

2. it is completely a digital structure

3. If any transaction passes the test of nodes. It will enter to the local list of not confirm transactions means directly in the memory pool. While others will enter in the orphan pool. In addition, pass transactions will be forward to its peers.

With some intervals, a node which contains the set of as-yet unconfirmed transactions on the network generates a new block. Each block contains the hash (32-byt). Therefore, by creating a little block chain, each block includes the timestamp. Accordingly, link to the previous block via its hash.

Validation Process

Blocks move and verified by nodes across the network like transactions. For the acceptance by the nodes, a block must contain proper transactions including no conflict with other ones. Whereas, with the confirmation of the test, it is entering into the local blockchain and transactions are confirm. Any transaction which conflict with others will discard immediately. Whether they are in memory pool or orphan pool.

Participation of the chain, make the strategy to ensure the generation of blocks.   This ensures indicates that any kind of node. whether it is an individual or a group has no ability to take hold of the blockchain’s content.

Authentication and testing

Proof-of-work a public blockchain allow its users to generate block who has the ability to solve the tricky and fiendishly mathematical puzzle. Whereas, to prevent minority control in private blockchains, blocks are signed by authorized members. In order to create a lawful chain, a product needs to legalize validator by using mining diversity.

Two different validator nodes can generate conflicting blocks when both have the same previous points. However, fork happens. While different blocks are seen by nodes and leading them to have the different opinion about the chain’s history. These forks are resolved on the arrival of new blocks on branches by a blockchain software.

Shorter branch’s node spool back its last block and replay these two blocks on the longer one. Unfortunately, if you are unlucky and both branches will extend. Then the conflict will be resolved by the third and so on. In addition, with the increase in fork’s length, the probability of a fork persisting drops increases. After a small number of the blocks, it can be reduced to zero in private blockchain.

Here, the most important thing to remember is, each node is controlled by a particular person. Where blockchain has not authority to ask some changes in transactions. The main purpose of the chain is to help in sync. But, if participants want to change the rule, no one has authority to stop them.

That is why we need to stop asking about the immutability of blockchain. Because the answer is “no”. Arguably, we consider the conditions under which it needs changes.

 

 

The blockchain immutability myth

Public chain’s mutability

Let’s start with the above mention two examples. We will take the start with the claim that authorization process. Which used in blockchain cannot bring true immutability by public chains. e.g.

Ethereum blockchain faces a devastating situation in June 2016. “the DAO”, loophole found by someone. In which, $250 million were invested and start draining its speed. Which distract the both investor and creator’s intentions. After few days, the ethereum software updated to prevent from hackers. It was publicly supported by Vitalik Buterin that ethereum users will control their own computer system. As a result, a large number of users, blockchain comes with the new name and rules is ethereum. Whereas, minority reject this idea and keep going with ethereum classic. There were more choices for names like ethereum compromise or ethereum pure. Whatever, democracy is the democracy, and everyone has their own rights voice. In addition, ethereum is ten times more than ethereum classic.

Now, we will take a common way, in which blockchain’s immutability will be dilute. Recall that mining of bitcoin and ethereum uses proof of work scheme. Where you get a reward for solving a tricky puzzle. In addition, this reward increases the potential of the users and they solve the relating issues more efficiently. Network continually adjust the rate of block creation. In addition, 10 minutes in bitcoin or 15 seconds in

Immutability of blockchain

Bitcoin has faced the factor difficulty of 350,000x from last 5 years. Today, bitcoin mining is on hardware devices with cheap electricity and in cold weather. Antminer S9 mines the block 10,000 faster than a desktop system. Which burns 10 times more electricity than a system with cost $1089.

To undermine the immutability of bitcoin blockchain, you need to install more mining capacity, then the other network creating 51% attack first. Secondly, through proper testing and approval, mine your own secret branches. Finally, at desired time, release your secret branch to the network anonymously. Then, the whole process of a transaction will be without any scams or hacking issue. It is not easy to install a huge program. It needs a lot of money and electricity as well. And a common man or country who has the shortage of both. Unfortunately, are not able to adopt this way for immutability of bitcoin blockchain.

Let’s estimate the cost of a 51% attack which reverses a year of bitcoin transactions. At the current bitcoin price of $1500 and reward of 15 bitcoins (including transaction fees) per 10-minute block. Miners earn around $1.2 billion per year ($1500 × 15 × 6 × 24 × 365). Reasonably, they are not losing money. So, the total expense should be in the same range.

Rewriteable private chains

Now, let’s have a ride to private blockchains. Which was established for the needs of government and well-reputed organizations. According to the organization’s perspective, immutability is the commercial, legal and regulatory non-starter. Because it allows attacking the network anonymously. whereas, immutability can also be ashore in good behavior of other institutions. With whom, they have authority to sue or sign a contract. It is a bonus because private blockchains are less costly to run. Since blocks need just a node’s approval and digital signature. When a number of validators follow the rules. As a result, you get cheaper and stronger immutability than other digital currencies offer. Furthermore, the percentage of immutability may decrease when participants in chain decide to do so together.

Immutability is nuanced

People who don’t like the traditional banking system and government’s currency are perfect to use proof of work blockchain. Whose immutability rely on economic terms instead of participants. It may be an expensive operation. when parties agree to live with government or wealthy actors and bringing down the network. Accordingly, they believe that cryptocurrency technology and its value continue to grow and it will get more secure.

Finally, for most permission blockchain use cases. We probably don’t want validator nodes to be able to easily and cheaply substitute old blocks in the chain. As Dave Birch says “the way to correct a wrong debit is with a correct credit”. Rather than pretending that the debit never took place. Nonetheless, for those cases where we do need the extra flexibility, chameleon hashes help make blockchains a practical choice.

Good luck!

 

 

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
View: 481

ICO Alerts: Five ICOs Ceased by Massachusetts for Selling Unregistered Securities

Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

According to the new orders of Massachusetts, the state has halted five ICOs (Initial Coin Offerings) as it stated, that the firms behind them were selling unregistered securities.

Crypto ICO News

The officials of government found that they all of these companies defied the General Laws of the state, which describe securities as bonds, investment contracts and stocks, that assures a financial profit, as it’s clearly defined in the orders. This stoppage was a part of a bigger inquiry into token sales that are being conducted by the government of the state.

ICO world

Investigation Against Companies Selling Unregistered Securities

On Tuesday, after investigating each of the company, William Galvin (Massachusetts Secretary of State) has ordered 18moons, through platforms like Sparkco, Mattervest, and Pink Ribbon, to stop their ICO campaigns. Moreover, all of these companies are required to propose, in order to return funds to their investors within the period of 30 days. Additionally, the companies would have extra 45 days to return the funds.

According to the records, a list of all refunded investors who have paid back the company has to be provided by the startups as well. Despite the fact that the orders highlighted, that the campaigns will be permanently halted and won’t be allowed to sell unregistered or non-released securities within the Massachusetts state, still, all startups will have the ability to register its tokens as securities in the future.

On the other hand, companies that are under- investigation, according to the orders, these companies will be suspended until they completely follow the orders. Though, if any company fails to obey any of the terms in the Division’s Order, then a legal action will be taken by the Enforcement Section.

No Response from Companies

The companies haven’t commented or responded to any of the questions so far. The head of SEC, Jay Clayton wanted cryptocurrencies to be regulated just like regular securities, as there was a possibility that at least few of the state officials would settle on it. But still, the doubt exists that there are many bandwagoners in the ICO world who don’t comprehend very much about the financial regulation.

Such moves can solely do so much, especially when there aren’t plenty of guidelines surrounding ICOs, however, they can lead some of the companies to have a second thought before hastening.

The latest step of Massachusetts on the ICO front is represented by its advancement and progress. At the beginning of this year, a suit was filed by the state against an ICO director and his company, claiming that the token sale represents an unregistered security offering.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
View: 586

Bitcoin Transactions – Accepting Bitcoin Payments for Smaller/Larger Business

Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

Accepting Bitcoin Payments

Bitcoin came out almost 8 years ago and has already become the most popular form of cryptocurrency. Where Bitcoin has revolutionized the cryptocurrency transactions, the currency is still struggling to break into the traditional business as most corporations are still not willing to accept Bitcoin as a form of payment.

To encourage the use of cryptocurrency, more corporations need to step up and start accepting Bitcoin as a form of payment.

If you own a business, let’s say, a small store and are looking to accept bitcoin as a form of payment, here is everything you need to know about how to accept Bitcoin payments.

Person to Person Transfer:

One of the simplest and easiest forms of Bitcoin transfer. What you are supposed to do is tell your clients that you accept bitcoin payments and give them your wallet’s public key so they can send you the coins. The process is similar to cash-in-hand payment.

The person to person transfer can be done using several smartphone apps. Finding one shouldn’t be a big deal as there are countless apps for android, iOS and windows users.

However, this type of transfer is only suitable for a smaller business or individuals offering odd services for smaller amounts. Those working at a bigger scale incline towards a solution that fits in with their current POS (Point of Scale) framework, such as verified bitcoin merchants.

Following is a list of most renowned bitcoin merchants out there.

Coinify:

Coinify is a Danish firm which offers POS solutions for both brick-and-mortar and online stores.

Some merchants accept bitcoin currency as payment as well as fiat. Coinify also has a mobile app called “Coinify POS”, which is compatible with both Android and iOS devices.

If you are an online user, you can use Coinify’s various integration tools, such as shopping cart plugins, payment buttons, or hosted invoicing for transactions.

CoinBase:

CoinBase is one of the most renowned Bitcoin merchants out there and has an Android app for bricks-and-mortar retailers.

The highlights of CoinBase include:

  • Currently, Bitcoin only supports US based bank accounts as a source of funding.
  • It also offers e-commerce support.
  • CoinBase likewise provides plugins for WooCommerce, WordPress, ZenCart and Magento

Learn how to buy bitcoin through Coinbase.

BitPay:

BitPay offers its services internationally for both businesses and charities. BitPay is integrated into the SoftTouch POS framework for bricks-and-mortar retail stores. However, it has an additional API which could be implemented into almost every other POS framework with a few alterations to the code.

BitXATM:

BitXATM is a Germany-based bitcoin cryptocurrency ATM.  The POS (point of sale) function of BitXATM has gained the worldwide attention as it has made it easier for merchants to accept payments from clients in digital currencies.

The machine has a 17” touch screen, costs €2,900 (around $3,993) and can accept any fiat currency. Moreover, it accepts/dispenses all forms of digital currency.

Conclusion:

These are some ways in which you can accept Bitcoin as a form of payment. For a smaller business; person to person transactions are the most suitable option. On the other hand, bigger corporations go for verified Bitcoin merchants.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
View: 445

Top 5 Advantages Of Bitcoins That You Didn’t Know

Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

Bitcoin is a digital currency that first came into circulation in 2009. The identity of the creator is still disclosed.

In recent years, Bitcoin has attracted interest from numerous people of different lines of work, but there is still a large portion of the public that still doesn’t know what is Bitcoin and how does it work. Simply stated, Bitcoin is a peer to peer, decentralized, digital currency system, designed to enable online users to make transactions via the digital currency. In other words, it’s a virtual currency.

Let’s take a look at some of the advantages of using this currency.

What Are The Benefits Of Bitcoins:

  • Its Tax Free:

When a user buys something using euros, pounds, dollars or any other type of flat currency, he is supposed to pay some additional sums in taxes. Every item that is purchased via cash has a certain amount of tax on it.

On the other hand, Bitcoin is tax-free. No sales taxes are involved when you pay with bitcoin in transactions made.

The zero taxation makes Bitcoin an extremely useful form of currency, especially when it comes to buying luxury items.

  • There Are Minimal Transaction Fees:

Exchange costs/fees are part of all sorts of wire transfers. On the other hand, no such costs come with Bitcoin transactions. Since there is no monitoring bank or governing authority to keep the flow of bitcoins in order, the transaction costs are extremely low, or even zero in some cases.

  • Flexible To Pay:

The fact that Bitcoin payment system is online makes it extremely handy for the users to make transactions. All you have to do is tap your smartphone screen a few times or do some clicks on your PC to transfer the coins.

The flexibility in payment methods means you can make the worldwide transaction without even having to leave your bed. Amazing! Isn’t it?

Read our guide to learn more about Bitcoin payments.

  • User Anonymity:

Bitcoin transactions are distinct and give you complete user anonymity. Every purchase made through bitcoins is never connected to you and there is no way for it to be tracked back to you. However, if a user is willing to reveal his identity, he does have the option of to publish his transactions – but in most cases, the users prefer to stay anonymous.

  • Lastly, The Currency Is Free from Third Party Influence:

One of the biggest advantages of using Bitcoin value is that it eliminates third-party influence. There is no central bank or a government authority controlling the flow of bitcoins, which ultimately eliminates the chances of your transaction being disrupted.

Bitcoin transactions are based on peer to peer system and it allows the users more freedom and greater liberty to make a purchase.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
View: 488